USA NPN National Phenology Network

Taking the Pulse of Our Planet

You are here

Peer-reviewed Publications

The USA-NPN has contributed to the development of over 100 peer-reviewed publications. Collectively the models, observational data, and gridded data have served to advance the science of phenology by increasing understanding of phenological patterns and climatic drivers of plants and animals at local to continental scales.

Use the filter below to explore these results by year(s) and/or articles that either Uses the USA-NPN Contemporary or Legacy Data, or Describes or Uses the USA-NPN Program.

  1. P.R. Lachapelle, D.E. Albrecht, E.E. Posthumus, L. Barnett, T.M. Crimmins, E. Stancioff, J. Einerson, P.L. Warren. 2019. Building local resilience to climate change through citizen science, environmental education, and decision-making. In: Addressing Climate Change at the Community Level in the United States. Routledge, New York, NY, pp 50-64. .
  2. L. Brenskelle, B.J. Stucky, J. Deck, R. Walls, R.P. Guralnick. 2019. Integrating herbarium specimen observations into global phenology data systems. Applications in Plant Sciences https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1231.
  3. A.F. Howard. 2018. Asclepias Syriaca (Common Milkweed) flowering date shift in response to climate change. Scientific Reports 8 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36152-2.
  4. S. Ren, X. Chen, W. Lang, M.D. Schwartz. 2018. Climatic controls of the spatial patterns of vegetation phenology in mid-latitude grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere. American Geophysical Union https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JG004616 .
  5. D. Peng, C. Wu, X. Zhang, L. Yu, A.R. Huete, F. Wang, S. Luo, X. Liu, H. Zhang. 2018. Scaling up spring phenology derived from remote sensing images. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 256-257 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.03.010.
  6. K. Hufkens, D. Basler, T. Milliman, E.K. Melaas, A.D. Richardson. 2018. An integrated phenology modelling framework in R. Methods in Ecology & Evolution https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12970.
  7. I.W. Park, S.J. Mazer. 2018. Overlooked climate parameters best predict flowering onset: assessing phenological models using the elastic net. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14447.
  8. C.M. Carrillo, T. Ault, D.S. Wilks. 2018. Spring onset predictability in the North American Multi‐Model Ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028597.
  9. Y. Xie, D.L. Civco, J.A. Silander. 2018. Species-specific spring and autumn leaf phenology captured by time-lapse digital cameras. Ecosphere 9(1) https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2089.
  10. H. Mehdipoor, R. Zurita-Milla, E. Izquierdo-Verdiguier, J.L. Betancourt. 2018. Influence of source and scale of gridded temperature data on modelled spring onset patterns in the conterminous United States. International Journal of Climatology 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5857.
  11. X. Zhang, L. Liu, Y. Liu, S. Jayavelu, J. Wang, M. Moon, G.M. Henebry, M.A. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf. 2018. Generation and evaluation of the VIIRS land surface phenology product. Remote Sensing of Environment Volume 216 212-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.06.047.
  12. J.M. Yost, P.W. Sweeney, E. Gilbert, G. Nelson, R. Guralnick, A.S. Gallinat, E.R. Ellwood, N. Rossington, C.G. Willis, S.D. Blum, R.L. Walls, E.M. Haston, M.W. Denslow, C.M. Zohner, A.B. Morris, B.J. Stucky, J.R. Carter, D.G. Baxter, K. Bolmgren, E.G. Denny, E. Dean, K.D. Pearson, C.C. Davis, B.D. Mischler, P.S. Soltis, S.J. Mazer. 2018. Digitization protocol for scoring reproductive phenology from herbarium specimens of seed plants. Applications in Plant Science 6(2):e1022 https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1022.
  13. L. Liang. 2018. A spatially explicit modeling analysis of adaptive variation in temperate tree phenology. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 266-267 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.12.004.
  14. A. V.Gougherty, S.R. Keller, A. Kruger, C.D. Stylinski, A.J. Elmore, M.C. Fitzpatrick. 2018. Estimating tree phenology from high frequency tree movement data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 263 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.08.020.
  15. R.E. Feldman, I. Žemaitė, A.J. Miller-Rushing. 2018. How training citizen scientists affects the accuracy and precision of phenological data. International Journal of Biometeorology 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1540-4.
  16. L.E.F. Harrer, T. Levi. 2018. The primacy of bears as seed dispersers in salmon-bearing ecosystems. Ecosphere 9(1) https://doi.org/e02076.10.1002/ecs2.2076.
  17. S.D. Taylor, J.M. Meiners, K. Riemer, M.C. Orr, E.P. White. 2018. Comparison of large‐scale citizen science data and long‐term study data for phenology modeling. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2568.
  18. E.K. Waller, T.M. Crimmins, J.J. Walker, E.E. Posthumus, J.F. Weltzin. 2018. Differential changes in the onset of spring across US National Wildlife Refuges and North American migratory bird flyways. PLOS One 13(9) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202495.
  19. E. Izquierdo-Verdiguier, R. Zurita-Milla, T. Ault, M.D. Schwartz. 2018. Development and analysis of spring plant phenology products: 36 years of 1-km grids over the conterminous US. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 262 34-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.06.028.
  20. L. D'Orangeville, J. Maxwell, D. Kneeshaw, N. Pederson, L. Duchesne, T. Logan, D. Houle, D. Arseneault, C.M. Beier, D.A. Bishop, D. Druckenbrod, S. Fraver, F. Girard, J. Halman, C. Hansen, J.L. Hart, H. Hartmann, M. Kaye, D. Leblanc, S. Manzoni, R. Ouimet, S. Rayback, C.R. Rollinson, R.P. Phillips. 2018. Drought timing and local climate determine the sensitivity of eastern temperate forests to drought. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14096.
  21. S. Belmecheri, F. Babst, A.R. Hudson, J.L. Betancourt, V. Trouet. 2017. Northern Hemisphere Jet Stream Position Indices as Diagnostic Tools for Climate and Ecosystem Dynamics. Earth Interactions 21 https://doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-16-0023.1.
  22. L. Zhu, J. Meng, F. Li, N. You. 2017. Predicting the patterns of change in spring onset and false springs in China during the twenty-first century. International Journal of Biometeorology 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-017-1456-4.
  23. D. Peng, X. Zhang, C. Wu, W. Huang, A. Gonsamo, A.R. Huete, K. Didan, B. Tan, X. Liu, B. Zhang. 2017. Intercomparison and evaluation of spring phenology products using National Phenology Network and AmeriFlux observations in the contiguous United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 242 33-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.04.009.
  24. K.A. Gerst, N.L. Rossington, S.J. Mazer. 2017. Phenological responsiveness to climate differs among four species of Quercus in North America. Journal of Ecology https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12774.
  25. T.M. Crimmins, M.A. Crimmins, K.L. Gerst, A.H. Rosemartin, J.F. Weltzin. 2017. USA National Phenology Network’s volunteer-contributed observations yield predictive models of phenological transitions. PLOS One 12(8) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182919.
  26. E. Stancioff, B. Bisson, S. Randall, J. Muhlin, C. McDonough, S. Gallo. 2017. Signs of the Seasons: A New England Phenology Program. Maine Policy Review 26.2 19-26. .
  27. D.M. Browning, J.W. Karl, D. Morin, A.D. Richardson, C.E. Tweedie. 2017. Phenocams Bridge the Gap between Field and Satellite Observations in an Arid Grassland Ecosystem. Remote Sensing 9(10) https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9101071.
  28. K.L. Paxton, F.R. Moore. 2017. Connecting the dots: Stopover strategies of an intercontinental migratory songbird in the context of the annual cycle. Ecology and Evolution https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3227.
  29. D. Peng, C. Wu, C. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, H. Ye, S. Luo, X. Liu, Y. Hu, B. Fang. 2017. Spring green-up phenology products derived from MODIS NDVI and EVI: Intercomparison, interpretation and validation using National Phenology Network and AmeriFlux observations. Ecological Indicators 77 323-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.02.024.
  30. R. Zurita-Milla, R. Goncalves, E. Izquierdo-Verdiguier, F.O. Ostermann, P. Soille, P.G. Marchetti. 2017. Exploring Vegetation Phenology At Continental Scales : Linking Temperature-Based Indices And Land Surface Phenological Metrics. Proceedings of the 2017 conference on big data from space (BiDS '17), 28-30 November 2017, Toulouse, France 63-66. .
  31. G. Filippa, E. Cremonese, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, O. Sonnentag, E. Humphreys, K. Hufkens, Y. Ryu, J. Verfaillie, U.Morra di Cella, A.D. Richardson. 2017. NDVI derived from near-infrared-enabled digital cameras: Applicability across different plant functional types. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology .
  32. W.D. Pearse, C.C. Davis, D.W. Inouye, R.B. Primack, J. Davies. 2017. A statistical estimator for determining the limits of contemporary and historic phenology. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 1876–1882. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0350-0.
  33. J.Chih Mun Sha, S.Chin Chua, P.Ting Chew, H. Ibrahim, H.Keong Lua, T.Kwan Fung, P. Zhang. 2017. Small-scale variability in a mosaic tropical rainforest influences habitat use of long-tailed macaques. Primates 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-017-0630-y.
  34. D.C. McKinley, A.J. Miller-Rushing, H.L. Ballard, R. Bonney, H. Brown, D.M. Evans, R.A. French, T.B. Phillips, S.F. Ryan, L.A. Shanley, J.L. Shirk, K.F. Stepenuck, J.F. Weltzin, A. Wiggins, O.D. Boyle, R.D. Briggs, S.F. Chapin, D.A. Hewitt, P.W. Preuss, M.A. Soukup. 2017. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection. Biological Conservation 208 15-28. .
  35. G.O.F.C. -GOLD, G.E.O. BON.. 2017. A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing. .
  36. K.M. Yule, J.L. Bronstein. 2017. Reproductive ecology of a parasitic plant differs by host species: vector interactions and the maintenance of host races. Oecologia 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-017-4038-6.
  37. Z. Labe, T. Ault, R. Zurita-Milla. 2016. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project. Climate Dynamics 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3313-2.
  38. I.W. Park. 2016. Timing the bloom season: a novel approach to evaluating reproductive phenology across distinct regional flora. Landscape Ecology Volume 31, Issue 7 1567–1579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-016-0339-0.
  39. W.B. Monahan, A.H. Rosemartin, K.L. Gerst, N.A. Fisichelli, T. Ault, M.D. Schwartz, J.E. Gross, J.F. Weltzin. 2016. Climate change is advancing spring onset across the U.S. national park system. EcoSphere 7(10) https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1465.
  40. X. Wu, R. Zurita-Milla, M.J. Kraak. 2016. A novel analysis of spring phenological patterns over Europe based on co-clustering. Journal of Geophysical Resources Biogeosciences https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JG003308.
  41. S.C. Elmendorf, K.D. Jones, B.I. Cook, J.M. Diez, C.A.F. Enquist, R.A. Hufft, M.O. Jones, S.J. Mazer, A.J. Miller-Rushing, D.J.P. Moore, M.D. Schwartz, J.F. Weltzin. 2016. The plant phenology monitoring design for The National Ecological Observatory Network. EcoSphere Volume 7, Issue 4 https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1303.
  42. R. Wang, J.A. Gamon, R.A. Montgomery, P.A. Townsend, A.I. Zygielbaum, K. Bitan, D. Tilman, J. Cavender-Bares. 2016. Seasonal Variation in the NDVI–Species Richness Relationship in a Prairie Grassland Experiment (Cedar Creek). Remote Sensing 8(2) 128 https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020128.
  43. J.F. Kelly, K.G. Horton, P.M. Stepanian, K.M. de Buers, T. Fagin, E.S. Bridge, P.B. Chilson. 2016. Novel measures of continental-scale avian migration phenology related to proximate environmental cues. Ecosphere Volume 7, Issue 9 https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1434.
  44. C.S.A. Wallace, J.J. Walker, S.M. Skirvin, C. Patrick-Birdwell, J.F. Weltzin, H. Raichle. 2016. Mapping Presence and Predicting Phenological Status of Invasive Buffelgrass in Southern Arizona Using MODIS, Climate and Citizen Science Observation Data. Remote Sensing 8(7) 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8070524.
  45. A. Verger, I. Filella, F. Baret, J. Peñuelas. 2016. Vegetation baseline phenology from kilometric global LAI satellite products. Remote Sensing of Environment 178 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.057.
  46. A.J. Elmore, C.D. Stylinski, K. Pradhan. 2016. Synergistic Use of Citizen Science and Remote Sensing for Continental-Scale Measurements of Forest Tree Phenology. Remote Sensing Volume 5, Issue 8 https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8060502.
  47. K. Youssefel, M. Mouaadamine, M. Achraf, N. Boubker, M. Elhoussinee. 2015. Flowering and fruiting phenology, and physico-chemical characteristics of 2-year-old plants of six species of Opuntia from eight regions of Morocco. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 90 (6) 682–688. .
  48. M.B. Cleary, K.J. Naithani, B.E. Ewers, E. Pendall. 2015. Upscaling CO2 fluxes using leaf, soil and chamber measurements across successional growth stages in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 121 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.05.013.
  49. T. Ault, R. Zurita-Milla, M.D. Schwartz. 2015. A Matlab toolbox for calculating spring indices from daily meteorological data. Computers and Geosciences 83 46–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2015.06.015.
  50. J.L. Kellermann, C.A.F. Enquist, D.L. Humple, N.E. Seavy, A.H. Rosemartin, R.L. Cormier, L.A. Barnett. 2015. A Bird’s-Eye View of the USA National Phenology Network, an Off-the-Shelf Monitoring Program. Phenological Synchrony and Bird Migration: Changing Climate and Seasonal Resources in North America 47-60. .
  51. A.L. Kern, G.H. Roehrig, D. Bhattacharya, J.Y. Wang, F.A. Finley, B.J. Reynolds, Y. Nam, M.P. Mueller, D.J. Tippins. 2015. Drawing on Place and Culture for Climate Change Education in Native Communities. EcoJustice, Citizen Science and Youth Activism, Environmental Discourses in Science Education 121-138. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11608-2_8.
  52. D. Medvigy, S.Hee Kim, J. Kim, M.C. Kafatos. 2015. Dynamically downscaling predictions for deciduous tree leaf emergence in California under current and future climate. International Journal of Biometeorology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-015-1086-7.
  53. A.J. Allstadt, S.J. Vavrus, P.J. Heglund, A.M. Pidgeon, W.E. Thogmartin, V.C. Radeloff. 2015. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century. Environmental Research Letters Volume 10, Number 10 https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104008.
  54. D.C. McKinley, A.J. Miller-Rushing, H.L. Ballard, R.E. Bonney, H. Brown, D.M. Evans, R.A. French, J.K. Parrish, T.B. Phillips, S.F. Ryan, L.A. Shanley, J.L. Shirk, K.F. Stepenuck, J.F. Weltzin, A. .Wiggins, O.D. Boyle, R.D. Briggs, S.F. Chapin, D.A. Hewitt, P.W. Preuss, M.A. Soukup. 2015. Investing in Citizen Science Can Improve Natural Resource Management and Environmental Protection. Issues in Ecology 19 1-28. .
  55. X. Yue, N. Unger, T.F. Keenan, X. Zhang, C.S. Vogel. 2015. Probing the past 30 year phenology trend of US deciduous forests. Biogeosciences 12 4693–4709. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-4693-2015.
  56. Y. Fu, S. Piao, Y. Vitasse, H. Zhao, H.J. De Boeck, Q. Liu, U. Weber, H. Hanninen, I.A. Janssens. 2015. Increased heat requirement for leaf flushing in temperate woody species over 1980-2012: effects of chilling, precipitation and insolation. Global Change Biology .
  57. H. Mehdipoor, R. Zurita-Milla, A.H. Rosemartin, K.L. Gerst, J.F. Weltzin. 2015. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study. PLOS One https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140811.
  58. C. Hallman, H. Arnott. 2015. Morphological and Physiological Phenology of Pinus longaeva in the White Mountains of California. Tree Ring Research Volume 71 Issue 1 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3959/1536-1098-71.1.1.
  59. T. Ault, M.D. Schwartz, R. Zurita-Milla, J.F. Weltzin, J.L. Betancourt. 2015. Trends and natural variability of spring onset in the coterminous United States as evaluated by a new gridded dataset of spring indices. Journal of Climate .
  60. D.M. Browning, A. Rango, J.W. Karl, C.M. Laney, E.R. Vivoni, C.E. Tweedie. 2015. Emerging technological and cultural shifts advancing drylands research and management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13 52-60. https://doi.org/10.1890/140161.
  61. P.D. Glynn, T. Owen. 2015. Review of the USA National Phenology Network. https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1411.
  62. A.H. Rosemartin, E.G. Denny, J.F. Weltzin, L. Marsh, B.E. Wilson, H. Mehdipoor, R. Zurita-Milla, M.D. Schwartz. 2015. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data 1956-2014. Nature Scientific Data 2 https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2015.38.
  63. shilong Piao, J. Tan, A. Chen, Y.H. Fu, P. Ciais, Q. Liu, I.A. Janssens, S. Vicca, Z. Zeng, S.J. Jeong, Y. Li, R.B. Myneni, S. Peng, M. Shen, J. Peñuelas. 2015. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature. Nature Communications 6 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7911.
  64. M.L. McCormack, K.P. Gaines, M. Pastore, D.M. Eissenstat. 2015. Early season root production in relation to leaf production among six diverse temperate tree species. Plant Soil DOI 10.1007/s11104-014-2347-7 .
  65. E.K. Melaas, M.A. Friedl, A.D. Richardson. 2015. Multi-scale modeling of spring phenology across Deciduous Forests in the Eastern United States. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13122.
  66. K.A. Gerst, J. Kellerman, C.A.F. Enquist, A.H. Rosemartin, E.G. Denny. 2015. Estimating the onset of spring from a complex phenology database: Trade-offs across geographic scales. Journal of Biometeorology .
  67. S.J. Mazer, K.L. Gerst, E.R. Matthews, A. Evenden. 2015. Species-specific phenological responses to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem. Ecosphere 6 (6) .
  68. E.M. Wood, J.L. Kellermann. 2015. Phenological Synchrony and Bird Migration: Changing Climate and Seasonal Resources in North America. Studies in Avian Biology 246. .
  69. E.G. Denny, K.L. Gerst, A.J. Miller-Rushing, G.L. Tierney, T.M. Crimmins, C.A.F. Enquist, P. Guertin, A.H. Rosemartin, M.D. Schwartz, K.A. Thomas, J.F. Weltzin. 2014. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications. International Journal of Biometeorology 58(4) 591-601. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0789-5.
  70. E.R. Matthews, K.L. Gerst, S.J. Mazer, C. Brigham, A. Evenden, A. Forrestel, B. Haggerty, S. Haultain, J. Hoines, S. Samuels, F. Villalba. 2014. Natural Resource Report - California Phenology Project (CPP) plant phenological monitoring protocol: Version 1. Natural Resource Report .
  71. A.G. Peterson, J.T. Abatzoglou. 2014. Observed changes in false springs over the contiguous United States. Geophysical Research Letters 41 2156–2162. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL059266.
  72. P.L. Warren, L.A. Barnett. 2014. Phenology: Using Phenology as a tool for Education, Research, and Understanding Environmental Change. University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Cooperative Extension AZ1633 .
  73. A.H. Rosemartin, T.M. Crimmins, C.A.F. Enquist, K.L. Gerst, J.L. Kellerman, E.E. Posthumus, J.F. Weltzin, E.G. Denny, P. Guertin, L.R. Marsh. 2014. Organizing Phenological Data Resources to Inform Natural Resource Conservation. Biological Conservation .
  74. D.S. Chapman, T. Haynes, S. Beal, F. Essl, amesM. Bullock. 2014. Phenology predicts the native and invasive range limits of common ragweed. Global Change Biology Vol. 20, Issue 1 192–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12380.
  75. K.K. Fuccillo, T.M. Crimmins, C.E. deRivera, T.S. Elder. 2014. Assessing accuracy in volunteer-based plant phenology monitoring. International Journal of Biometeorology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0892-7.
  76. T.M. Crimmins, J.F. Weltzin, A.H. Rosemartin, E.M. Surina, L.R. Marsh, E.G. Denny. 2014. Targeted campaign increases activity among participants in Nature’s Notebook, a citizen science project.. Natural Sciences Education 43 64-72. .
  77. S.J. Jeong, D. Medvigy. 2014. Macroscale prediction of autumn leaf coloration throughout the continental United States. Global Ecology and Biogeography https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12206.
  78. G. Tierney, B. Mitchell, A.J. Miller-Rushing, J. Katz, E. Denny, C. Brauer, T. Donovan, A.D. Richardson, M. Toomey, A. Kozlowski, J.F. Weltzin, K. Gerst, E. Sharron, O. Sonnentag, F. Dieffenbach. 2013. Phenology monitoring protocol: Northeast Temperate Network. National Park Service .
  79. G.J. McCabe, J.L. Betancourt, G.T. Pederson, M.D. Schwartz. 2013. Variability Common to First Leaf Dates and Snowpack in the Western Conterminous United States. American Meteorological Society Earth Interactions https://doi.org/10.1175/2013EI000549.1.
  80. B.P. Haggerty, E.R. Matthews, K.L. Gerst, A.G. Evenden, S.J. Mazer. 2013. The California Phenology Project: Tracking Plant Responses to Climate Change. BioOne, Madroño Vol. 60 No. 1 1-3. https://doi.org/10.3120/0024-9637-60.1.1.
  81. E.E. Posthumus, L.A. Barnett, T.M. Crimmins, G.R. Kish, W. Sheftall, E. Stancioff, P. Warren. 2013. Nature's Notebook and Extension: Engaging Citizen-Scientists and 4-H Youth to Observe a Changing Environment. Journal of Extension Volume 51, Number 1 .
  82. B. Haggerty, A. Hove, S.J. Mazer, L. Barnett. 2013. Flight of the pollinators: A repeatable hands-on exploration of plant phenology from a pollinator's perspective. Birds, Butterflies, Bullfrogs and Beyond: Bring Biology to Life through Citizen Science .
  83. B. Haggerty, A. Hove, S.J. Mazer, L. Barnett. 2013. Flight of the Pollinators: Plant phenology from a pollinator's perspective. Citizen Science: 15 Lessons that bring biology to life .
  84. L. Liang, M.D. Schwartz. 2013. Testing a growth efficiency hypothesis with continental-scale phenological variations of common and cloned plants. International Journal of Biometeorology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-013-0691-6.
  85. S.J. Jeong, D. Medvigy, E. Shevliakova, S. Malyshev. 2013. Predicting changes in temperate forest budburst using continental-scale observations and models. Geophysical Research Letters 40 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012Gl054431.
  86. E.R. Matthews, K.L. Gerst, S.J. Mazer, C. Bingham, A. Evenden, A. Forrestel, B. Haggerty, S. Haultain, J. Hoines, S. Samuels, F. Villalba. 2013. California Phenology Project: Report on pilot phase activities, 2010-2013. Natural Resource Report .
  87. E.S. Euskirchen, T.B. Carman, A.D. McGuire. 2013. Changes in the structure and function of northern Alaskan ecosystems when considering variable leaf-out times across groupings of species in a dynamic vegetation model. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12392.
  88. T. Ault, G.M. Henebry, K.M. de Beurs, M.D. Schwartz, J.L. Betancourt, D.J.P. Moore. 2013. The False Spring of 2012, Earliest in North American Record. EOS Volume 94, Issue 20 181-182. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013EO200001.
  89. D. Medvigy, S.J. Jeong, K.L. Clark, N.S. Skowronski, K.V.R. Schäfer. 2013. Effects of seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity on the carbon fluxes of a temperate deciduous forest. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JG002421.
  90. C. Brundson, L. Comber. 2012. Assessing the changing flowering date of the common lilac in North America: a random coefficient model approach. GeoInformatica 4 675-690. .
  91. M.D. Schwartz, J.L. Betancourt, J.F. Weltzin. 2012. From Caprio’s Lilacs to the USA National Phenology Network. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6 .
  92. C.A.F. Enquist, A.H. Rosemartin, M.D. Schwartz. 2012. Identifying and prioritizing phenological data products and tools. Eos Meeting Reports .
  93. G.J. McCabe, T. Ault, B.I. Cook, J.L. Bentancourt, M.D. Schwartz. 2011. Influences of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on the timing of the North American spring. International Journal of Climatology https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3400.
  94. V.P. Nolan, J.F. Weltzin. 2011. Phenology for Science, Resource Management, Decision Making, and Education. EOS .
  95. M.D. Schwartz, J.M. Hanes. 2010. Intercomparing Multiple Measures of the Onset of Spring in Eastern North America. International Journal of Climatology 30(11) 1614-1626. .
  96. M.D. Schwartz, B.C. Reed. 2010. Surface phenology and satellite sensor-derived onset of greenness: an initial comparison. International Journal of Remote Sensing 20 3451-3457. .
  97. M.A. White, K.M. Beurs, K. Didan, D.W. Inouye, A.D. Richardson, O.P. Jensen, J. O’Keefe, G. Zhang, R.R. Nemani, W.J.D. Leeuwen, J.F. Brown, A. Wit, M. Schaepman, X. Lin, M. Dettinger, A. Bailey, J. Kimball, M.D. Schwartz, D.D. Baldocchi, J.T. Lee, W.K. Lauenroth. 2009. Intercomparison, Interpretation, and Assessment of Spring Phenology in North America Estimated from Remote Sensing for 1982 to 2006. Global Change Biology 15(10) 2335-2359. .
  98. M.D. Schwartz, J.M. Hanes. 2009. Continental-scale phenology: warming and chilling. International Journal of Climatology 9999 n/a. .
  99. X. Zhang, D. Tarpley, J.T. Sullivan. 2007. Diverse responses of vegetation phenology to a warming climate. Geophysical Research Letters 34 .
  100. N. Kathuroju, M.A. White, J. Symanzik, M.D. Schwartz, J.A. Powell, R.R. Nemani. 2007. On the use of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer for development of prognostic land surface phenology models. Ecological Modelling 201(2) 144-156. .
  101. J.L. Betancourt, M.D. Schwartz, D.D. Breshears, C.A. Brewer, G. Frazer, J.E. Gross, S.J. Mazer, B.C. Reed, B.E. Wilson. 2007. Evolving plans for the USA National Phenology Network. Eos Trans 88(19) 211. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007EO190007.
  102. K. Hayhoe, C. Wake, T.G. Huntington, L. Luo, M.D. Schwartz, J. Sheffield, E. Wood, B. Anderson, J. Bradbury, A. DeGaetano, T.J. Troy, D. Wolfe. 2007. Past and Future Changes in Climate and Hydrological Indicators in the U.S. Northeast. Climate Dynamics 28(4) 381-407. .
  103. M.D. Schwartz, R. Ahas, A. Aasa. 2006. Onset of spring starting earlier across the northern hemisphere. Global Change Biology 12 343-351. .
  104. J.L. Betancourt, M.D. Schwartz, D.D. Breshears, D.R. Cayan, M.D. Dettinger, D.W. Inouye, E. Post, B.C. Reed. 2005. Implementing a U.S. National Phenology NetworK. Eos Trans 86(51) 539. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005EO510005.
  105. C. Bonfils, A. Angert, C.C. Henning, S. Biraud, S.C. Doney, I. Fung. 2005. Extending the record of photosynthetic activity in the eastern United States into the presatellite period using surface diurnal temperature range. Geophysical Research Letters 32 L08405. .
  106. D.W. Wolfe, M.D. Schwartz, A.N. Lakso, Y. Otsuki, R.M. Pool, N.J. Shaulis. 2004. Climate change and shifts in spring phenology of three horticultural woody perennials in northeastern USA. International Journal of Biometeorology 49 303-309. .
  107. T. Zhao, M.D. Schwartz. 2003. Examining the onset of spring in Wisconsin. Climate Research 24 59–70. .
  108. M.D. Schwartz, X. Chen. 2002. Examining the onset of spring in China. Climate Research 21 157-164. .
  109. D.R. Cayan, S.A. Kammerdiener, M.D. Dettinger, J.M. Caprio, D.H. Peterson. 2001. Changes in the onset of spring in the western United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82 399–415. .
  110. M.D. Schwartz, T.M. Crawford. 2001. Detecting energy-balance modifications at the onset of spring. Physical Geography 22 394–409. .
  111. M.D. Schwartz, B.E. Reiter. 2000. Changes in North American spring. International Journal of Climatology 20 929-932. .
  112. M.D. Schwartz. 1998. Green-wave phenology. Nature 394 839-840. .
  113. M.D. Schwartz. 1997. Spring Index Models: An Approach to Connecting Satellite and Surface Phenology. Phenology of Seasonal Climates 23-38. .
  114. M.D. Schwartz. 1996. Examining the spring discontinuity in daily temperature ranges. Journal of Climate 9 803-808. .
  115. M.D. Schwartz. 1994. Monitoring global change with phenology: the case of the spring green wave. International Journal of Biometeorology 38 18-22. .
  116. J.M. Caprio. 1993. A collection of the annual reports to cooperators of the phenological survey in the western region of the United States and related phenological information for the period 1956–1992. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, Bozeman, MT .
  117. J.M. Caprio. 1993. Western regional phenological summary of information on honeysuckle and lilac first bloom phase covering the period 1956-1991. .
  118. M.D. Schwartz. 1993. Assessing the Onset of Spring: A Climatological Perspective. Physical Geography 14(6) 536-550. .
  119. M.D. Schwartz. 1992. Phenology and Springtime Surface Layer Change. Monthly Weather Review 11 2570-2578. .
  120. M.D. Schwartz. 1990. Detecting the onset of spring: a possible application of phenological models. Climate Research 1 23-29. .
  121. M.D. Schwartz, T.R. Karl. 1990. Spring phenology: Nature's experiment to detect the effect of. Monthly Weather Review 118 883–890. .
  122. M.D. Schwartz, G.A. Marotz. 1988. Synoptic Events and Spring Phenology. Physical Geography 9(2) 151-161. .
  123. M.D. Schwartz, G.A. Marotz. 1986. An approach to examining regional atmosphere-plant interactions with phenological data. Journal of Biogeography 13 551–560. .
  124. P.A. Dube, L.P. Perry, M.T. Vittum. 1984. Instructions for phenological observations: lilac and honeysuckle. Bulletin/Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station (USA) .
  125. R.J. Hopp. 1978. Phenology: An Aid to Agricultural Technology. Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 684 .
  126. R.J. Hopp. 1978. Phenology: an aid to agricultural technology. Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 684 .
  127. R.J. Hopp. 1976. Modeling Lilac Development. International Journal of Biometeorology 20 256-260. .
  128. R.J. Hopp. 1976. Modeling Lilac Development. International Journal of Biometeorology 20 256-260. .
  129. R.P. Hickin, M.T. Vittum. 1976. The importance of soil and air temperature in spring phenoclimatic modelling. International Journal of Biometeorology 20 200–206. .
  130. J.M. Caprio. 1974. The Solar Thermal Unit Concept in Problems Related to Plant Development and Potential Evapotranspiration. Phenology and Seasonality Modeling, H. Lieth, editor. 353-364. .
  131. H. Lieth. 1974. Phenology and seasonality modeling. Ecological Studies - Analysis and Synthesis Series .
  132. R.J. Hopp, B.O. Blair, R.P. Hickin. 1973. Plant phenology in eastern and central North America. II. Phenologieal observations in lilac Red Rothomagensis. Vermont Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull 678 .
  133. R.J. Hopp, B.O. Blair, R.P. Hickin. 1973. Plant Phenology in Eastern and Central North America: II. Phenological Observations on Lilac 'Red Rothomagensis'. Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 678 .
  134. R.J. Hopp, B.O. Blair. 1973. Plant phenology in eastern and central North America. I. Development of networks and preliminary results. Vermont Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull 677 20. .
  135. R.J. Hopp, B.O. Blair. 1973. Plant Phenology in Eastern and Central North America: I. Development of Networks and Preliminary Results. Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 677 .
  136. J.M. Caprio. 1966. A Statistical Procedure for Determining the Association between Weather and Non-Measurement Biological Data. Agricultural Meteorology 3 55-72. .
  137. J.M. Caprio. 1966. Patterns of plant development in the Western United States. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 607 .
  138. J.M. Caprio. 1957. Phenology of lilac bloom in Montana. Science 126 1344–1345. .