The range extends from Washington and southeastern Idaho south through Oregon, California, Nevada, and western Utah to northwestern Baja California, and disjunctly south to Isla de Cedros. Elevational range extends from sea level to about 11,000 feet (3,353 meters).
Western fence lizards live in various habitats, including grassland, sagebrush, woodland, open coniferous forest, rocky canyons, talus slopes, and fence rows. They are not found in severe deserts but do inhabit adjacent mountain slopes. They perch on the ground, on low perches (e.g., logs, fences, rocks), or high in taller bushes or trees.