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The fruit of Sambucus nigra is used to make wine, jellies, candy, pies, and sauces. It is also used in aromatic distilled water, and in flavoring lard. Its wood is used to make combs, spindles, mathematical instruments, blowguns, flutes, and whistles. In addition, its bark is used to make a dye, and its leaves are used as an insecticide. In addition, it is used medicinally. Despite its extensive human use, however, several parts of the plant and its unripe fruit contain a poisonous alkaloid and cyanogenic glycoside that need to be considered when using the various taxa within this species.