Nature’s Notebook

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Photo for species Lupinus_latifolius

Lupinus latifolius is a member of the legume, or pea family. It associates with nitrogen-fixing bacteria that reside in nodules in their roots, converting atmospheric nitrogen to forms usable by plants for growth. This species is severly toxic when ingested due to alkaloids in the seeds. It is known to cause "crooked calf disease", leading to serious birth defects when pregnant cows have grazed on it.
 

Photo Credit:
© Walter Siegmund via Wikimedia Commons

Lupinus latifolius

broadleaf lupine, broad-leaf lupine
What does this species look like?
What does this species look like?: 

This erect herbaceous perennial can be anywhere between 30 centimeters to 2 meters tall and has a highly variabe form across its range. Leaves are palmately divided with 6-11 leaflets; leaflets are between 40 to 100 millimeters long. Leaves range from being glabrous to hairy. The flowers are 1 to 2 centimeters long and can be purple, blue or white. Flowers are distributed along upright inflorescences that are 16-60 centimeters. The densely hairy fruit pods are 2 to 4.5 centimeters long, each containing 6 to 10 seeds.

Lupinus latifolius is common and widespread. It is generally found in woodlands in either shady or open habitat, at elevations less than 3500 meters. It can persist on low-fertility soils because of its ability to fix nitrogen.

Where is this species found?
States & Provinces: 
AZ, CA, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA
Which phenophases should I observe?
Leaves

Do you see...?

Initial growth
New growth of the plant is visible after a period of no growth (winter or drought), either from above-ground buds with green tips, or new green or white shoots breaking through the soil surface. Growth is considered "initial" on each bud or shoot until the first leaf has fully unfolded. For seedlings, "initial" growth includes the presence of the one or two small, round or elongated leaves (cotyledons) before the first true leaf has unfolded.

Leaves
One or more live, fully unfolded leaves are visible on the plant. For seedlings, consider only true leaves and do not count the one or two small, round or elongated leaves (cotyledons) that are found on the stem almost immediately after the seedling germinates. Do not include fully dried or dead leaves.

Flowers

Do you see...?

Flowers or flower buds
One or more fresh open or unopened flowers or flower buds are visible on the plant. Include flower buds or inflorescences that are swelling or expanding, but do not include those that are tightly closed and not actively growing (dormant). Also do not include wilted or dried flowers.

How many flowers and flower buds are present? For species in which individual flowers are clustered in flower heads, spikes or catkins (inflorescences), simply estimate the number of flower heads, spikes or catkins and not the number of individual flowers.

Less than 3;3 to 10;11 to 100;101 to 1,000;More than 1,000

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Open flowers
One or more open, fresh flowers are visible on the plant. Flowers are considered "open" when the reproductive parts (male stamens or female pistils) are visible between or within unfolded or open flower parts (petals, floral tubes or sepals). Do not include wilted or dried flowers.

What percentage of all fresh flowers (buds plus unopened plus open) on the plant are open? For species in which individual flowers are clustered in flower heads, spikes or catkins (inflorescences), estimate the percentage of all individual flowers that are open.

Less than 5%;5-24%;25-49%;50-74%;75-94%;95% or more

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Fruits

Do you see...?

Fruits
One or more fruits are visible on the plant. For Lupinus latifolius, the fruit is a hairy pod that changes from green to tan, brown or dark brown and splits open to expose the seeds. Do not include empty pods that have already dropped all of their seeds.

How many fruits are present?

Less than 3;3 to 10;11 to 100;101 to 1,000;More than 1,000

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Ripe fruits
One or more ripe fruits are visible on the plant. For Lupinus latifolius, a fruit is considered ripe when it has turned tan, brown or dark brown and has split open to expose the seeds. Do not include empty pods that have already dropped all of their seeds.

What percentage of all fruits (unripe plus ripe) on the plant are ripe?

Less than 5%;5-24%;25-49%;50-74%;75-94%;95% or more

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Recent fruit or seed drop
One or more mature fruits or seeds have dropped or been removed from the plant since your last visit. Do not include obviously immature fruits that have dropped before ripening, such as in a heavy rain or wind, or empty fruits that had long ago dropped all of their seeds but remained on the plant.

How many mature fruits have dropped seeds or have completely dropped or been removed from the plant since your last visit?

Less than 3;3 to 10;11 to 100;101 to 1,000;More than 1,000

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