Nature’s Notebook

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Photo for species Eriophorum_angustifolium
Photo Credit:
© Robert W. Freckmann, University of Wisconsin- Stevens Point

Eriophorum angustifolium

tall cottongrass, narrowleaf cottonsedge, tall cotton-grass
Where is this species found?
States & Provinces: 
AB, AK, BC, CO, IA, ID, IL, IN, MB, ME, MI, MN, MT, NB, ND, NE, NH, NL, NM, NS, NT, NU, NY, ON, OR, PE, QC, SD, SK, VT, WA, WI, WY, YT
Which phenophases should I observe?
Leaves

Do you see...?

Initial growth
New growth of the plant is visible after a period of no growth (winter or drought), either as new green shoots sprouting from nodes on existing stems, new green shoots breaking through the soil surface, or re-greening of dried stems or leaves. For each shoot, growth is considered "initial" until the first leaf has unfolded or has fully re-greened.

Leaves
One or more live, green, unfolded leaves are visible on the plant. A leaf is considered "unfolded" once it has grown long enough that the two halves of the leaf blade have begun to spread apart like an open book. Do not include fully dried or dead leaves.

What percentage of the plant is green?

Less than 5%;5-24%;25-49%;50-74%;75-94%;95% or more

Flowers

Do you see...?

Flower heads
One or more fresh flower heads (inflorescences) are visible on the plant. Flower heads, which include many small flowers arranged in spikelets, emerge from inside the stem and gradually grow taller. Include flower heads with unopened or open flowers, but do not include heads whose flowers have all wilted or dried or begun to develop into fruits (grains).

How many fresh flower heads are present?

Less than 3;3 to 10;11 to 100;101 to 1,000;More than 1,000

Open flowers
One or more open, fresh flowers are visible on the plant. A flower is considered "open" when reproductive parts (male anthers or female stigmata) can be seen protruding from the spikelet. Do not include flowers with wilted or dried reproductive parts.

What percentage of all fresh flowers (unopened plus open) on the plant are open?

Less than 5%;5-24%;25-49%;50-74%;75-94%;95% or more

Pollen release
One or more flowers on the plant release visible pollen grains when gently shaken or blown into your palm or onto a dark surface.

How much pollen is released?

Little: Only a few grains are released.;Some: Many grains are released.;Lots: A layer of pollen covers your palm, or a cloud of pollen can be seen in the air when the wind blows

Fruits

Do you see...?

Fruits
One or more fruits are visible on the plant. For Eriophorum angustifolium, the fruit is tiny and seed-like with a long tuft of white fluff, tightly grouped with many others at the end of several short branches that arise together from the base of the seed head. The seed-like fruit changes from green to brown or black, hardens as it dries out, and drops or is blown from the plant. Do not include seed heads that have already dropped all of their fruits.

How many fruits are present?

Less than 3;3 to 10;11 to 100;101 to 1,000;More than 1,000

More...

Ripe fruits
One or more ripe fruits are visible on the plant. For Eriophorum angustifolium, a fruit is considered ripe when it has turned brown or black and hard, or when it readily drops from the plant when touched. Do not include seed heads that have already dropped all of their fruits.

What percentage of all fruits (unripe plus ripe) on the plant are ripe?

Less than 5%;5-24%;25-49%;50-74%;75-94%;95% or more

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Recent fruit or seed drop
One or more mature fruits or seeds have dropped or been removed from the plant since your last visit. Do not include obviously immature fruits that have dropped before ripening, such as in a heavy rain or wind, or empty fruits that had long ago dropped all of their seeds but remained on the plant.

How many mature fruits have dropped seeds or have completely dropped or been removed from the plant since your last visit?

Less than 3;3 to 10;11 to 100;101 to 1,000;More than 1,000

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